Direct Copyright Revenue Streams in Creative Industries in Finland

15 June 2010, Finland

This evaluation, commissioned by the Finnish Copyright Society, is part of a general assessment of the
functioning and performance of the copyright and related rights system in Finland. An overall methodology
for this assessment is being developed by the Foundation for Cultural Policy Research (CUPORE), commissioned by the Ministry of Education and Culture.

Management of copyright and related rights is an essential part of a well-functioning system. Rights can
be exercised individually or managed collectively, depending on the case. This evaluation takes as a point
of departure different creative industries and tries to identify areas where direct copyright revenue streams are paid. The concept of direct copyright revenue is not a clear-cut issue. This evaluation model therefore makes a first attempt to describe which income streams can be classified as direct copyright revenue, and on what basis. It is an invitation for discussion. In some cases, figures in the evaluation are based on available statistics or other available public data. Various associations representing stakeholders have been helpful in assisting to make an assessment of their sector. In some other cases, estimates are based on assumptions, and in those cases I have described the underlying information and assessment basis, to facilitate scrutiny.

In all cases where direct copyright revenue streams are identified, it is made for the sole purpose of the
model. The figures and shares bear no value in negotiations and other dealings between stakeholders. Neither can conclusions be drawn on the relative importance of copyright in the respective sectors, as the model of doing business plays a decisive role in the results. Where business is based on licensing, rather than sale of physical goods, sectors show high figures; such as in software and database industries.